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Glossary

Acetylene
Acetylene, recovery
Acid gas
Hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide contained in natural gas and refinery streams; so named because they can cause corrosion
AFIP
Automatic Foamed-In-Place—CB&I trade name for vessel insulation system
Alkane
Also known as paraffin; hydrocarbon composed of carbon and hydrogen linked together by single bonds without any cyclic structure
AlkyClean®
Solid acid catalyst gasoline alkylation
Alkylation
Refinery process used to produce high-octane gasoline blending stocks
ALMA
Maleic anhydride
Amine
Chemical used as a solvent to remove hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide from hydrocarbon streams
Amine Best Practices Group
Industry group organized to develop best practices for hydrocarbon processing units including amine treating, sour water treating, sulfur recovery and tail gas treating units
Aromatics
Group of hydrocarbons of which benzene is the parent; so named because many of their derivatives have sweet or aromatic odors
Asphalt
Highly viscous liquid or semi-solid composed of bitumen and present in most crudes; can be separated from other crude components by fractional distillation; used primarily for road paving and roofing shingles
Atmospheric distillation
See fractional distillation
Autothermal Reforming
Process used to produce hydrogen by using a combination of partial oxidation and steam reforming in a single vessel
Avjet
Aviation jet fuel derived from a kerosene fraction; also known as jet
Barrel of Oil Equivalent
A unit of energy based on the approximate energy released by burning one barrel of crude oil
BASF SELOP
Selective hydrogenation of butadiene
Battery Limits
An encompassed area in a chemical plant or refinery that includes the process units with their related utilities and services
BDE
Butadiene extraction
Benzene CDHydro®
Selective hydrogenation of benzene in reformate
Bitumen
Viscous organic liquid; asphalt and tar are the most common forms
Bottoms
Residue remaining in a distillation unit after the highest boiling point material to be distilled has been removed
BTA
Field butanes to motor fuel alkylate (BTA)
Butane
Four-carbon alkane, hydrocarbon used as a fuel for cooking and camping, chemical formula C4H10
Butene-1
Polymer grade butene-1
C4 Hydro
Total hydrogenation
C4/5 Hydro
Total hydrogenation
C5 CDHydro®
C5 selective hydrogenation
Cat cracker
See Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit
CATADIENE®
Butadiene via C4 dehydrogenation; butylene via C4 dehydrogenation; isoprene via C5 dehydrogenation
Catalyst
A material that aids or promotes a chemical reaction between other substances but does not react itself
Catalytic cracking
Process of breaking up heavier hydrocarbon molecules into lighter hydrocarbon fractions by use of heat and catalysts
Catalytic distillation
Combines reaction and distillation in a single vessel resulting in lower investment and operating costs, as well as process benefits.
CATOFIN®
Propylene via propane dehydro; isobutylene via isobutane dehydro
CDAcrylamide
Acrylamide production from acrylonitrile
CDAlky®
Gasoline alkylation from refinery or steam cracking C4 feeds
CDAlkyPlus®
Converts isobutylene and isobutane to motor fuel alkylate
CD-DEIB®
Butene-2 recovery
CDEtbe®
ETBE from refinery C4 feeds
CDEtherol®
TAME from refinery C5 feeds
CDEthers®
MTBE/TAME coproduction from refinery C4/C5 feeds
CDHydro®
C4 acetylenes selective hydrogenation
CDHydro®
C4 selective hydrogenation
CDHydro®/CDHDS®
FCC gasoline desulfurization
CDIB®
Isobutylene from MTBE decomposition
CDIsotame®
Increased TAME from refinery and steam cracker C5 feeds
CDMtbe®
MTBE from steam cracker and dehydro C4 feeds
CDOPT
Pretreatment of C4 feed for alklyation
CDSelect®
Low cost desulfurization of low-sulfur catalytic naphtha (FCC gasoline desulfurization)
CDTaee®
TAEE from refinery C5 feeds
CDTame®
TAME from refinery C5 feeds
CDTECH EB®
Ethylbenzene via catalytic distillation
Classic Styrene
Styrene
Claus Combustor
CB&I trade name for high efficiency acid gas burner
Coal-To-Liquid
Process used to convert coal to synthetic fuels
Composite Elevated Tank
Elevated water storage tank consisting of a concrete support structure and steel storage tank
Condensates
See Natural Gas Liquids
Continuous Catalyst Regeneration
Refinery process that regenerates spent catalyst used in a catalytic reformer, which converts naphtha feedstock into higher octane gasoline blending stocks
Conversion stock
Commodity material, usually vacuum gas oil or atmospheric gas oil, that is suitable for feedstock to an FCCU or hydrocracker
CPT
Comonomer (butene-1, hexene-1) Production Technology
CrossLink
CB&I trade name for water filtration device
Crude
Also known as petroleum or crude oil—A mixture of naturally occurring liquid hydrocarbons before refining
Cumene
Cumene
Debutanizer
A fractionating column used to remove butane and lighter components from liquid streams
Decelerating-Flo
CB&I trade name for water filtration system
De-ethanizer
A fractionating column designed to remove ethane and gases from heavier hydrocarbons
Delayed coking
Process for thermally converting and upgrading heavy residual oil into lighter products and by-product petroleum coke
Depentanizer
A fractionating column used to remove pentane and lighter fractions from hydrocarbon streams
Depropanizer
A fractionating column for removing propane and lighter components from liquid streams
DETOL®
Benzene via aromatics hydrodealkylation
Diesel Hydrotreater
Refinery process unit for clean fuels production
Diethanol Amine (DEA)
Solvent used in acid gas removal system
DiGlycol Amine (DGA)
Solvent used in acid gas removal system
Diluted crude
Heavy crude oil to which a diluent (thinner) has been added to reduce viscosity and facilitate pipeline flow
Dimer8®
Iso-octene and/or iso-octane from refinery C4 feeds
Distillate
The products of distillation formed by condensing vapors
Distillation
A method of separating mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture
DMC
Dimethyl carbonate
Downstream
A sector of the petroleum industry that refers to the refining of crude oil, and the products derived from crude oil
DPC
Diphenyl carbonate
DPG
CB&I trade name for dripolene pyrolysis gasoline hydrogenation
E&P
Exploration & Production; see Upstream.
EBOne
Ethylbenzene via fixed bed alkylation
Enhanced Oil Recovery
Various methods used to enhance production from an oil reservoir
ESD
Egg-Shaped Digester—CB&I trade name for egg-shaped anaerobic digester (waste water treatment)
Ethane
Two-carbon alkane, hydrocarbon that is the second principal component of natural gas, chemical formula C2H6
Ethanol
Flammable liquid, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, derived from plants and often added to gasoline as an oxygenate to boost octane, enhance combustion and reduce carbon monoxide emissions
Ethylene
A two-carbon building block in the petrochemical industry, used to produce a variety of finished products, including plastics, fibers and resins
FCC
Fluid Catalytic Cracking
FCCU
Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Unit
Feedstock
Substance used as a raw material in a refining process
FiltraCone
CB&I trade name for modular water treatment plant
Fire and Gas System
Hardware and software to provide detection, alarms and mediation in the event of an area fire or a toxic or combustible gas release in the refinery
Fixed-Roof Tank
A vertical cylindrical tank with a stationary roof, which can be either a self-supporting or column-supported dome or cone roof
Floating-Roof Tank
A vertical cylindrical tank with a roof that floats on the liquid product surface
Flue gas
Gas that is emitted to the atmosphere via a flue, which is a pipe for transporting exhaust fumes
Fluidized Catalytic Cracking
Refinery process used to convert the heavy portion of crude oil into lighter products, including LPG and gasoline
FPSO
Floating Production, Storage and Offloading—Vessel used by the offshore oil and gas industry to take all of the oil or gas produced from a nearby platform, process it, and store it until the oil or gas can be offloaded
Fraction
A group of hydrocarbons that have similar boiling points
Fractional distillation
Common form of separation technology in hydrocarbon processing plants wherein a mixture (e.g., crude oil) is heated in a large, vertical cylindrical column to separate compounds (fractions) according to their boiling points
Fractionation
The separation of a chemical compound into its component parts
FreshMix
CB&I trade name for water storage mixing device
Gas Oil Separation Plant
Unit that separates natural gas from crude oil; abbreviated GOSP
Gas Subcooled Process
Natural gas treating process used to recover liquid hydrocarbons
Gasoil
Middle-distillate petroleum fraction; usually includes diesel, kerosene, heating oil and light fuel oil
Gasoline
Petroleum-derived liquid (also known as petrol) used as a transportation fuel
Gasoline Hydrotreating Unit
Refinery process unit for gasoline production
Gas-To-Liquids (GTL)
Process to convert methane-rich gases into liquid fuels
GeorgeBox
CB&I trade name for sealed liquid sulfur observation port
H2Drogen®
CB&I trade name for SMR hydrogen production technology
HDSelect®
Selective desulfurization of mid-catalytic naphtha
Heat Exchanger
A device, used to transfer heat from a fluid on one side of a barrier to a fluid on the other side without bringing the fluids into direct contact.
Heavy crude
Crude oil with a high proportion of heavy hydrocarbon fractions and metallic content
HeliCarb
CB&I trade name for water recarbonation system
Hemispheroid
CB&I trade name for noded spherical pressure vessel
HFIP
Horizontal Foamed-In-Place—CB&I trade name for vessel insulation system
High Density Polyethylene
A plastic made from petroleum; abbreviated HDPE
HOPS
Heavy Oil Processing System
Hortonsphere®
CB&I trade name for spherical pressure vessel
Hortonspheroid®
CB&I trade name for noded spherical pressure vessel
HotDeck
CB&I trade name for waste heat boiler modular assembly
HYCO
Synthesis gas containing hydrogen (H) and carbon monoxide (CO)
Hydrocarbon
Chemical compound containing hydrogen and carbon used as a fuel, e.g., petroleum, methane, butane
Hydrocracker
The refinery process unit in which hydrocracking occurs
Hydrocracking
Refining process that exposes heavy fuel oil to hydrogen at high pressure and temperature in the presence of a catalyst to reduce sulfur and produce lighter oils by cracking the heavy oil molecules
Hydrodesulfurization
Refining process that removes sulfur from liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons
Hydropillar®
CB&I trade name for fluted column elevated water storage tank
Hydrotreater
Refinery process unit that removes sulfur and other contaminants from hydrocarbon streams
HYFORMING®
CB&I trade name for SMR hydrogen production technology
I-FCC
Indmax FCC for maximum propylene
ISBL
Inside Battery Limits—Physical boundary in a refinery or other process plant that contains the primary process units
ISOCRACKING®
Hydrocracking mid distillates to light clean fuel products or lube base oils
ISODEWAXING®
Catalytic isomerization of wax to improve base lube oil pour point
ISOFINING®
Mild residue hydrocracking for synthetic crude oils
ISOFINISHING®
Hydrofinishing of base lube oils to improve oxygen stability and color
Isomerization
Refinery process that converts normal paraffins to higher-octane isoparaffins
ISOMPLUS®
Isobutylene production from normal butenes
ISOMPLUS®
Isoamylenes production from normal pentenes
ISOTREATING®
Hydrotreating of naphtha and distillates for clean fuels
Jet
See avjet
LB-Fining
MAPD hydrogenation to propylene
LC-FINING
CB&I trade name for residuum hydrocracking
LCN CDHydro®
LCN selective hydrotreating
Light crude
Crude oil with a high proportion of light hydrocarbon fractions and low metallic compounds
Light ends
The more volatile products of petroleum refining, e.g., butane, propane, gasoline
Liquefied Natural Gas
Natural gas cooled to a liquid state; abbreviated LNG
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Pressurized mixture of butane and propane used as fuel; abbreviated LPG
LITOL®
Benzene from coke oven oil
LPR
LP recovery of FCC/coker offgas
MAPD CDHydro®
MAPD selective hydrogenation
Merox
Licensed refinery process used to remove or convert mercaptans (sulfur compounds)
Metathesis
The exchange of bonds between two reacting chemicals to give two new chemicals. To illustrate, two chemicals, AB and CD, react to give AD and CB.
Methane
Simplest alkane, hydrocarbon that is the largest component of natural gas, chemical formula CH4
Methanol-to-Olefins
A technology used to produce olefins from methanol, an economical alternative to crude oil-derived feedstocks; abbreviated MTO
Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether
Additive used to increase gasoline octane rating; abbreviated MTBE
Methyldiethanol Amine (MDEA)
Solvent used in acid gas removal system
Mono-Ethanol Amine (MEA)
Solvent used in acid gas removal system
MTO
Methanol to Olefins (recovery section only)
Naphtha
Volatile, colorless product of petroleum distillation, used primarily as a blending stock in gasoline production and feedstock for refining and chemical processes
Naphthenes
One of three basic hydrocarbon classifications found naturally in crude oil; used widely as petrochemical feedstock
Natural Gas
A naturally occurring gas that is colorless, shapeless and odorless in its pure form. Consisting of mostly methane, it must undergo processing to remove other gases such as ethane, propane, butane, pentane, etc.
Natural Gas Liquids (NGLs)
Liquids, sometimes called condensates, that are found in unprocessed natural gas, e.g., ethane, propane, butane
Novolen®
Licensed polypropylene production process
Novolen®
Polypropylene production process using advance metalocene (catalyst)
OCR
Counter-current moving bed technology with on-stream catalyst replacement
OCT
Propylene
Octane number
A number indicating the relative antiknock characteristics of gasoline
Oil sands
Mixture of clay, sand, water and bitumen.
Olefins
Class of unsaturated double bond linear hydrocarbons recovered from petroleum; examples include ethylene, propylene and butene. Olefins are used to produce a variety of products, including plastics, fibers and rubber.
OSBL
Outside Battery Limits—Areas in a refinery or other process plant outside the primary process units boundary, e.g., utilities, tankage, etc.
Oxygen Injection
CB&I trade name for direct oxygen diffusion into a combustion chamber
Oxygen Injector
CB&I trade name for direct oxygen diffusion into a combustion chamber
Oxygenate
Fuel additive (alcohols and ethers) that contain oxygen which can boost gasoline's octane quality, enhance combustion and reduce exhaust emissions
OxyPac
CB&I trade name for control module for oxygen-enhanced operations
Paraffins
A group of generally saturated single bond linear hydrocarbons; alkane
Partial Oxidation
Exothermic process used to produce hydrogen from hydrocarbons; abbreviated POX
PC Waterspheroid®
CB&I trade name for precast concrete elevated water storage tank
Pentane
Five-carbon alkane, hydrocarbon used in the production of polystyrene foam, chemical formula C5H12
Petrochemical
Intermediate chemical derived from petroleum, hydrocarbons liquids or natural gas
Petroleum coke
Also called pet coke; solid carbon fuel derived from oil refinery cracking processes such as delayed coking
Phenol
Phenol
Polypropylene
A thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications, including packaging, textiles, plastic parts and stationery.
PowerTherm
CB&I trade name for combustion turbine inlet air cooling system
Pressure Swing Adsorption
A method for purifying gas (used in hydrogen production); abbreviated PSA
Pressure Vessel
Container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure different from the ambient pressure (PV). CB&I trade name for this vessel is Hortonsphere®.
Primary Separation Vessel
Elevated cone bottom tank used in oil sands processing; abbreviated PSV
Propane
Three-carbon alkane, hydrocarbon used as a fuel for heating and cooking; chemical formula C3H8
Propylene
A three-carbon building block in the petrochemical industry, used to produce a variety of finished products, including plastics, fibers and resins
PYROTOL®
Benzene from pyrolysis gasoline
RCC
Resid Catalytic Cracking
RDS
Residuum hydrotreating
Reformer
Refinery process unit that uses heat and pressure in the presence of a catalyst to convert naphtha feedstock into higher octane gasoline blending stocks; also used for hydrogen production
Reservoir
Flat bottom water storage tank (larger diameter than height)
Residual Fluid Catalytic Cracking
Refinery process used to convert residuals (heavy hydrocarbons) into lighter components, including LPG and gasoline; abbreviated RFCC
Residuals
Heavy fuel oils produced from the non-volatile residue from the fractional distillation process; also called resids
Resulf-10
CB&I trade name for tail gas treating technology
Resulf-MM
CB&I trade name for tail gas treating technology
Resulf
CB&I trade name for tail gas treating technology
Ribbon Flow
CB&I trade name for water treatment contacting device
Slug catcher
Unit that separates "slugs" of liquids from a natural gas stream
Slurry Optimizer
CB&I trade name for ClariCone-related device
SMART®
Styrene
SoCool®
CB&I trade name for low temperature thermal stratification fluid
Sour crude
Crude oil with a sulfur content higher than 0.5% by weight; usually requires extra processing; generally has an unpleasant sulfur smell
Sour gas
See acid gas
Stack gas
Anything that comes out of a burner stack in gaseous form, usually consisting of mostly nitrogen and carbon dioxide
Standpipe
Flat bottom water storage tank (larger height than diameter)
Steam Methane Reforming
Endothermic process of producing hydrogen from hydrocarbons using steam and a metal-based catalyst; abbreviated SMR
Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage
Oil sands extraction process using underground wells to inject steam into oils sands deposits and collect bitumen released by the heat; abbreviated SAGD
Straight-run
A petroleum product produced by the primary distillation of crude oil, free of cracked components
Strata-Therm®
CB&I trade name for thermal energy storage tank
SulfSep
CB&I trade name for sulfur entrainment separator
Sulfur Recovery Unit (SRU)
Refinery process unit used to convert hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur using the Claus process
SunDeck
CB&I trade name for valve and control system for TGTU systems
Sweet crude
Crude oil with a sulfur content less than 0.5% by weight; no sulfur smell
Syncrude
Synthetic crude oil produced from oil sands, primarily in Canada
Syngas
Synthesis Gas—A gas, generally produced from methane, consisting primarily of carbon monoxide and hydrogen; used in refinery and petrochemical applications and as an intermediary step in gas-to-liquids systems
Tail gas
The lightest hydrocarbon gas released from a refining process
Tail Gas Treating Unit (TGTU)
Refinery process unit used to control emissions of sulfur compounds; generally integrated with a sulfur recovery unit
Tar
Viscous black liquid derived from the distillation of organic matter; can be produced from petroleum, peat, wood and coal
Tension Leg Platform
Vertically moored floating structure used for the offshore production of oil or gas
Thermal Cap
CB&I trade name for lightweight insulating deck in storage tanks
Thermal cracking
Conversion of heavy oil molecules into lighter fractions by the use of high temperatures without the aid of catalysts
TLE Decoking
Decoking of transferline exchangers
UFR
Up-flow reactor for HDT residue steam with higher contaminate levels
Upstream
A sector of the petroleum industry referring to the searching for, recovery and production of crude oil and natural gas. Also known as the exploration and production sector
Vacuum distillation
Distillation of petroleum under vacuum, which reduces the boiling temperature sufficiently to prevent cracking or decomposition of the feedstock
Vacuum Gas Oil
Product of vacuum distillation; a preferred feedstock for cracking units to produce gasoline; abbreviated VGO
Vapormaster
CB&I trade name for elastomeric secondary tank roof seal
VaporSleeve
CB&I trade name for low emission guidepole fitting
Vertical Plate Coke Drum
CB&I trade name for coke drum design
Visbreaking
Viscosity breaking—A low-temperature cracking process used to reduce the viscosity or pour point of straight-run residuum
Viscosity
Measure of the internal friction or resistance of an oil to flow
VRDS
Vacuum resid hydrotreating
Watersphere®
CB&I trade name for single pedestal elevated water storage tank
Waterspheroid®
CB&I trade name for single pedestal elevated water storage tank
Weathermaster®
CB&I trade name for internal floating roof tank
Wet gas
A gas containing a relatively high proportion of hydrocarbons that are recoverable as liquids
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